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Mediatized Houses
House of Arenberg
House of Auersperg
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House of Bentinck
House of Castell
House of Colloredo
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House of Esterhazy
House of Fugger
House of Furstenberg
House of Harrach
House of Hohenlohe - Part I
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House of Khevenhuller
House of Konigsegg
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House of Lobkowicz
House of Looz und Corswarem
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House of Metternich-Winneburg
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House of Platen-Hallermund
House of Puckler und Limpurg
House of Quadt
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House of Rechteren-Limpurg
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House of Salm-Reifferscheidt
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House of Trauttmansdorff
House of Waldbott
House of Waldburg
House of Wied
House of Windisch-Gratz
House of Wurmbrand-Stuppach
Princely and Ducal - AI
Princely and Ducal - AII
Princely and Ducal - BI
Princely and Ducal - BII
Princely and Ducal - BIII
Princely and Ducal - BIV
Princely and Ducal - BV
Princely and Ducal - CI
Princely and Ducal - CII
Princely and Ducal - CIII
Princely and Ducal - CIV
Princely and Ducal - DI
Princely and Ducal - DII
Princely and Ducal - EI
Princely and Ducal - FI
Princely and Ducal - FII
Princely and Ducal - GI
Princely and Ducal - GII
Princely and Ducal - GIII
Princely and Ducal - HI
Princely and Ducal - HII
Princely and Ducal - HIII
Princely and Ducal - II
Princely and Ducal - JI
Princely and Ducal - KI
Princely and Ducal - LI
Princely and Ducal - LII
Princely and Ducal - LIII
Princely and Ducal - LIV
Princely and Ducal - MI
Princely and Ducal - MII
Princely and Ducal - NI
Princely and Ducal - NII
Princely and Ducal - NIII
Princely and Ducal - OI
Princely and Ducal - PI
Princely and Ducal - PII
Princely and Ducal - PIII
Princely and Ducal - PIV
Princely and Ducal - RI
Princely and Ducal - RII
Princely and Ducal - RIII
Princely and Ducal - SI
Princely and Ducal - SII
Princely and Ducal - SIII
Princely and Ducal - SIV
Princely and Ducal - TI
Princely and Ducal - TII
Princely and Ducal - UI
Princely and Ducal - VI
Princely and Ducal - WI
Princely and Ducal - WII
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - I
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - II
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - III
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - IV
Nobility of Holy Roman Empire - V
British Peerage Part I
British Peerage Part II
British Peerage Part III - A
British Peerage Part III - B
British Peerage Part IV
Higher Nobility I
Higher Nobility II
Higher Nobility III
Higher Nobility IV
Higher Nobility V
Higher Nobility VI
Higher Nobility VII
Higher Nobility VIII
Higher Nobility IX
Higher Nobility X
Higher Nobility XI
Higher Nobility XII
Higher Nobility XIII
Higher Nobility XIV
Higher Nobility XV
Higher Nobility XVI
Nobility of Armenia
Nobility of Albania
Nobility of Austria
Nobility of Belgium
Nobility of Denmark
Nobility of Netherlands
Nobility of Finland
Nobility of France
Nobility of Germany
Nobility of Hungary
Nobility of Italy
Jacobite Nobility
Jewish Nobility
Nobility of Lithuania
Nobility of Malta
Nobility of Mexico - Brazil
Nobility of Norway
Nobility of Poland - Part I
Nobility of Poland - Part II
Nobility of Russia
Nobility of Spain
Nobility of Sweden
Nobility of Switzerland
Nobility of Ireland
US Colonial Families - Part I
US Colonial Families - Part II
Indian Princely Families and States
Nobility of China
Nobility of the Ottoman Empire
Kingdom of Morocco
Kingdom of Bhutan
Empire of China
Kingdom of Egypt
Empire of Ethiopia
Empire of Haiti
Kingdom of Hawaii
Empire of Persia
Kingdom of Iraq
Kingdom of Jordan
Empire of Korea
Kingdom of Tahiti
Kingdom of Tunisia
Kingdom of Nepal
Kingdom of Libya
Empire of Vietnam
Kingdom of Cambodia
Kingdom of Madagascar
Sultanate of Oman
Kingdom of Bahrain
Kingdom of Swaziland
Kingdom of Afghanistan
Sultanate of Brunei
Sultanate of Zanzibar
Kingdom of Rwanda
Kingdom of Laos
Kingdom of Tonga
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Empire of Japan
State of Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Kingdom of Lesotho
Malaysia
State of Kuwait
Kingdom of Thailand
Kingdom of Burundi
Kingdom of Yemen
Mughal Empire

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Nobility of the World
Volume VIII - Switzerland
 
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The History and Register of
the Nobility of Switzerland

Switzerland having the characteristic to be a confederation of states of which each one has its own history, we can't speak about " Swiss nobility " in the singular but " Swiss nobilities " in the plural. Also remind that the concept of nobility or noble class postulates the existence of a hierarchical society recognising the principle of the heredity of a function or social status. In the Middle Ages we also find in the various Swiss cantons only families of feudal nobility and some ennobled families abroad. We found through Switzerland a great number of families of dynastes who were vassals of the Holy Roman Empire, of the house of Savoy or of the Kingdom of Burgundy. This diversity prevented the birth of a state with monarchical central authority.

Swiss_nobles.jpg

In Switzerland, since the XIVth century, we can distinguish, except the particular cases, three modes of nobility: 1°) the nobility acquired under the terms of the family right, i.e. by direct line (male and legitimate since the XVIth century). 2°) the nobility resulting from a concession or a recognition of the Sovereign, which can be one monarch or a collective Sovereign. This maybe individual, family or collective concession. The Sovereign can also recognize an ennoblement conceded to one of his subjects by a foreign sovereign. Also there exists "reward's ennoblements" conceding only the possession of a title. 3°) the nobility acquired by integration [For example: Affry in XVth century, Reyff (1577) Pontherose (1443), Vevey (1523), Vandel (1526), Hugues (1544) ]. This integration frequently results from a social rise and of one or more alliances with families belonging already to the nobility. Sometimes that was accompanied by the acquisisition of a noble domain (the seigniory of Mézières was bought in 1547 by Jost Freitag who was consequently qualified noble).

swiss-guard.jpg 

The loss of nobility did not exist in Switzerland where the social classes were closer than in other countries. Juridically there is neither misalliance nor loss of nobility due to the manual work or to the trade. So Noble Jean Gambach was in 1442 Fribourg in order to be able to reach the load of banneret; it was in particular the case for some lines of the families Fégely, Gottrau, Reynold, Reyff, etc.. Each state had its own constitution, its currency, its jurisdiction, its habits and customs, its history and so its own nobility. So it's necessary to understand the Swiss nobilities to specify some nobiliary characteristics of some "cantons". manufacturer of scythe, and Noble Louis de Daguet was a carter at the end of XVIIIth century. The only cases of loss of nobility were the illegitimate line or the voluntary renunciation. This last case was met in.

Bern.jpg

BERNE - FRIBOURG - SOLEURE - LUCERNE

From XVth century there was a power's increasing of the cities and their citizens and consequently there was an integration of the feudal nobility into the middle-class of the cities. In some "cantons", as Bern, Fribourg, Soleure and Lucerne, the political power belongs consequently to an upper class which is formed with noble families and new families proceeding from the middle-class of the chief town of each state. These no noble families and the ancient noble families held the power with an hereditary right to the governmental loads. This matter of fact increased gradually and ended towards 1600 to the institution of a privileged class. In 1627 in Fribourg, this class was officialized by a letter known as "lettre des deux-Cents". Then this class were constitutionally composed with the families eligible for the Sovereign Councils. In Fribourg this class, the patriciat, was closed in 1684 and half-opened only at the end of XVIIIth century.

The Sovereign of each state was not a King but the Council and the subjects of each republic had only one sovereign, who was a collective sovereign. These "patriciats" were renewed by co-optation and some of his families were ennobled abroad. Some of these collective sovereigns granted ennoblements: In 1547 Bern set up the seigniory of Batie-Beauregard in barony in favour of Jacques Champion; In 1665 Soleure granted letters of nobility to the brothers Marcacci of Locarno; In 1712 Bern set up the seigniory of Bercher in barony in favour of Jean-Louis de Saussure.

In Fribourg at the end of XVIIIth century the privilege of eligibility to the governmental loads was the exclusive prerogative of the patricians. In 1781 this "patriciat" is composed with four categories of families: 1°) noble families with titles (Affry, Alt, Diesbach, Maillardoz, Castella de Berlens); 2°) noble families without title (Boccard, Fégely de Vivy, Fivaz, Gléresse, Griset de Forel, Lenzbourg, Maillard, Praroman, of Prel, Reyff de Cugy, Reynold); 3°) the patricians families of noble origin, but of which the nobility was not thought of (Fégely de Prez for example); and 4°) the patricians families without noble origin (Buman, Castella, Reynold, Weck, Wild, etc...). Due to the constitution of 1404 the members the first two categories of families were excluded from the loads of "banneret", "secret" (member of the secret council) and "grand sautier" except if they renounced their nobility. Also there were in the canton some families who were ennobled and who were not patricians and whose nobility was not recognised by Fribourg (Besson, Chassot, Gapany and Tercier). In the "canton" of Fribourg the only still extant family of feudal nobility is the house of La Roche became Schenewey who lost its nobility in the XVIth century.

In 1782 the Sovereign of Fribourg decided to standardise the situation of these families. He removed all the titles except "noble", authorised all the patricians to use the nobiliary particle "de" (or "von"), and specified that henceforth the loads of "bannerets", "secrets" and "grand-sautier" would be opened to all the patricians. By confirming that all the patricians families were noble either by origin or by being member of the privileged class, this "Règlement relativement à l'introduction de l'égalité des familles patriciennes et de leurs titulatures" (17th and 18th of July 1782) is not really a collective ennoblement but the official confirmation of a state of things.

In Bern a constitutional law created in 1643 the privileged class of the eligible families to the Great Council. Since 1731 the Sovereign prohibits to use titles of nobility conferred by foreign sovereigns; Since 1761 the patricians were authorised to be called "wohledelgeboren"; Then on the 9th of April 1783 the patricians were authorised to uses the nobiliary particle "von" (or "de")..

In Lucerne at the end of XVIIth century the patricians were named with the title "Junker" and regularly made use of their nobility when they were abroad, particularly when they served in the foreigner armies. Some families also received foreigner letters of nobility. In Soleure the patriciat in fact was formed gradually. Some families set up the corporations to be able to control the co-optation. So the capacity passed to a definite number of privileged families who then formed a noble patrician whose members were qualified "Herren und Bürger". Numbers of these families accepted letters of nobility abroad, particularly in France.

  • Noble Families of Berne
    • von Erlach
  • Noble Families of Fribourg
  • Noble Families of Soleure
  • Noble Families of Lucerne

 Bern_Federal_Palace_1857.jpg

URI - SCHWYZ - UNTERWALD

In the cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwald, the political evolution from the Middle Ages to the XIXth century was realised by a relatively similar way but really doesn't lead to the constitution of a "patriciat" but rather to the formation of a relatively closed class of new families sharing the political power with the ancient noble families. Some of the new families were ennobled abroad while others were incorporated to the Nobility by "integration".

The canton of Schwyz counted several families of ministériaux such Reding.

  • Noble Families of Uri
    • William Tell
  • Noble Families of Schwyz
  • Noble Families of Unterwald

 Chillon-Castle.jpg

The Noble Families of Zurich

In 1400 the city of Zürich formally became autonomous with regard to the Holy Roman Empire. Before this date the only noble families were families of ministériaux. Quickly the political power came to the corporations while giving a dominant position to the noble corporation of the "Constaffel" in which was constituted a "noble chamber" called "adelige Stube zum Rüden Stübli". The members families of the Corporations were mainly in them by heredity

The members of Stübli used the title "Junker". In 1798 the Stübli did not count any more than eleven familles. The Bonstetten family came to Bern in 1463 and ended in 1606. Some still extant families of the nobility of Zürichreceived additionally foreigner titles such as the Hirzel, count in France in 1788.

  • Noble Families of Zurich
    • von Kyburg

The Noble Families of Schaffhouse, Zug

In the cantons of Schaffouse and Zug, the political power belonged to the corporations. So there was not real hereditary prerogative for the governmental loads. In the canton of Zug the few families who had received letters of nobility abroad are extinguished. The very democratic system of this canton hindered a nobility expansion.

In the canton of Schaffhouse the noble families formed since the XIIIth century the "Herrenstube" which became during the XVth century one of the twelve corporations. Some ancient families were extinguished and replaced in the "Herrenstube" by new families of the "integration nobility". In 1864 these families were maintained in their right to be buried in the "Junkernfriedhof", their last privilege.

  • Noble Families of Schaffhouse
  • Noble Families of Zug

Noble Families of Valais, Thurgovie, Tessin

In the cantons of Valais, Thurgovie and Tessin, the former noble families were maintained and only some families were ennobled abroad. The "patriciat valaisan" which provides in particular the bishops-princes, was formed with families of old nobility but also with some families incorporated into the Nobility either by possession of a right of jurisdiction either by membership to the "nobility of integration". Some of these families also accepted letters of nobility abroad. This patriciat was not a patriciat of right but in fact.

Tessin, before becoming Swiss canton in 1803, did not form a political and administrative unit and there is thus no "nobility of Tessin" in a strict sense, however there are some noble families originating from this area. In Locarno, at the Reformation, two of the three great feudal families of capitanei: Muralto and Orelli emigrated in [[Zürich]. A branch of Muralt was established in Bern. The third great family, Magoria, remained in Locarno. The majority of the families of Tessin ennobled abroad were it by the dukes of Milan.

  • Noble Families of Valais
  • Noble Families of Thurgau
  • Noble Families of Tessin

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The Noble Families of Grisons

In the Grisons there was a great number of families of dynasts and "ministériaux". From the XIth or XIIth century, the dynasts owned seigniories on which they held power more in fact than by resulting of a constitutional law. These families maintained their privileges until XVe century and some families preserved an important situation, in particular Salis and Planta, while some others were ennobles abroad. In 1794 the Leagues enacted the radical cancelling of the nobility, titles and particles. This prohibition was confirmed in 1803 and 1848.

  • Noble Families of Grisons

The Noble Families of Glaris, Appenzel

These cantons never had of nobility of right. However in Glaris there are some families ennobled abroad. In these cantons the families descended from the "State's chief" and from the bailiffs formed in fact a class of "integration nobility".

  • Noble Families of Glaris
    • von Glarus
  • Noble Families of Appenzel

 Swiss_noblewomen.jpg

The Noble Families of Aargau

This canton where is the castle of Habsburg remained under the Austrian domination until 1415, when it has been conquered by Bern and Zürich which divided it. The current canton born only in 1803, with Bern and Zurich land and what was for a short time the Principality of Frickgau, sometimes known as the Canton of Fricktal. The ancient noble families of Aargau were maintained in different cantons, and around the World, such Mülinen and Hallwyl inBern, or abroad such Reinach in Alsace.

  • Noble Families of Aargau
    • von Habsburg
    • von Laufenburg
    • von Lenzburg
    • von Rheinfelden
    • von Sulz
    • von Tegerfelden
    • von Hallwyl
    • von Klingnau

The Noble Families of Vaud

The canton of Vaud, old county then country of Vaud, depended successively of Burgundy, Zähringen, Savoy until 1536, then of Bern. In this canton there were some feudal noble families, families of Savoyard nobility, families of the patrician nobility of Bern, and families of "integration nobility".

  • Noble Families of Vaud

The Noble Families of Neuchatel

In the canton of Neuchâtel, Principality since 1643, the nobility increased by ennoblements of the Prince, these ennoblement letters were subject to be ratified by the Council of State. Neuchâtel became Swiss canton in 1815 and staid paradoxically a Prussian Principality until 1848.

  • Noble Families of Neuchatel
    • von Hohenzollern

The Noble Families of Geneva

Since the Reformation the Republic of Geneva did not officially recognise the nobility as an organised corps. There were families of old nobility, families of "integration nobility", families who were ennobled abroad, and a great number of noble families refuge at the time of the Reformation.

However it should be noted that, contrary to the generally accepted ideas, the Republic of Geneva made use of its capacity to ennoble. It is in particular what it did on August 20 1680 by ennobling with a title of count the Noblet family.

  • Noble Families of Geneva
  • von Genf

The Noble Families of Basel

In 1382 the constitution reserved four seats of the Council for the noble families. From the next century the corporations and thus the town's citizens took the power. The noble families of this time preferred to leave Basel which consequently will have a corporative system. The nobility was then prohibited in Basel. An exception was made for the "barons Wieland" in 1816 under the condition that they will not use their title in Basel. However there are some noble families whose nobility and titles are earlier to their reception as citizen of Basel.

  • Noble Families of Basel

The Noble Families of St. Gall

In St. Gall some powerful families formed a kind of patriciat whose members belong to the "adelige Stube zum Notenstein". Some of these families consolidated their position by receiving nobility's letters abroad. In 1778 the Sovereign Council fixed the list of the seven families of the "Notenstein" which constituted in fact the nobility of St-Gall. Some families which were not members of the "Notenstein" received nobility's diplomas abroad.

  • Noble Families of St. Gall
  • von Rapperswil
  • von Toggenburg 

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The Current situation of Swiss Nobility

Since 1798 the nobility does not exist any more as a privileged class but simply on the historical level. However there was an aristocratic restoration in Lucerne and Freiburg 1814 to 1831. Now there are about 450 noble families remaining in Switzerland, either of the one of the Swiss nobilities or of a foreign nobility. By counting 15 people per family, we obtain a proportion of 1,06 °/oo of the population, which is equivalent to the French noble density. However it's necessary to note the cantonal inequality of this density; the canton of Appenzell having nearly anyone noble family while the canton of Vaud having more than one hundred. Today the nobility not having legal existence in Switzerland, the titles of nobility appear neither in the registry offices nor in the official instruments. Sometimes they are tolerated in some administrative documents and in the professional life to the social relations. 

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