The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta
(Italian: Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta), also known as the
Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), Order of Malta or Knights
of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the
world's oldest surviving order of chivalry. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is headquartered in Rome, and is widely
considered a sovereign subject of international law.
SMOM is the modern continuation of the original medieval order of Saint John of Jerusalem, known as the Knights
Hospitaller, a group founded in Jerusalem about 1050 as an Amalfitan hospital to provide care for poor and sick pilgrims to
the Holy Land. After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, it became a military order under its own
charter. Following the loss of Christian held territories of the Holy Land to Muslims, the Order operated from Rhodes (1310-1523),
and later from Malta (1530-1798), over which it was sovereign. Although this state came to an end with the ejection of the
Order from Malta by Napoleon, the Order as such survived. It retains its claims of sovereignty under international law and
has been granted permanent observer status at the United Nations.
Today the order has about 13,000 members; 80,000 permanent volunteers; and 20,000 medical personnel including
doctors, nurses, auxiliaries and paramedics in more than 120 countries. The goal is to assist the elderly,
handicapped, refugeed, children, homeless, those with terminal illness and leprosy in five continents of the world, without
distinction of race or religion. In several countries-including France, Germany and Ireland-the local associations of the
Order are important providers of first aid training, first aid services and emergency medical services. Through its worldwide
relief corps-Malteser International-the Order is also engaged to aid victims of natural disasters, epidemics and armed conflicts.
Name and insignia
Order has a large number of local priories and associations around the world but there also exist a number of organizations
with similar-sounding names that are unrelated, including numerous fraudulent (self-styled) orders seeking to capitalize
on the name.
In the ecclesiastical
heraldry of the Roman Catholic Church, the Order of Malta is one of only two orders (along with the Order of the Holy Sepulchre)
whose insignia may be displayed in a clerical coat of arms. (Laypersons have no such restriction.) The shield is surrounded
with a silver rosary for professed knights, or for others the ribbon of their rank. Members may also display the Maltese Cross
behind their shield instead of the ribbon.
The birth of the Order dates back to around 1048. Merchants
from the ancient Marine Republic of Amalfi obtained from the Caliph of Egypt the authorisation to build a church, convent
and hospital in Jerusalem, to care for pilgrims of any religious faith or race. The Order of St.John of Jerusalem - the
monastic community that ran the hospital for the pilgrims in the Holy Land - became independent under the guidance of its
founder, Blessed Gérard. With the Bull of 15 February 1113, Pope Paschal II approved the foundation of the Hospital
and placed it under the aegis of the Holy See, granting it the right to freely elect its superiors without interference
from other secular or religious authorities. By virtue of the Papal Bull, the Hospital became an Order exempt from the Church.
All the Knights were religious, bound by the three monastic vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.
The constitution of the Kingdom of Jerusalem regarding the
crusades obliged the Order to take on the military defence of the sick, the pilgrims and the territories that the crusaders
had conquered from the Muslims. The Order thus added the task of defending the faith to that of its hospitaller mission.
As time went on, the Order adopted the white eight-pointed Cross that is still its symbol today.
When the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land fell in 1291, the Order settled
first in Cyprus and then, in 1310, led by Grand Master Fra' Foulques de Villaret, on the island of Rhodes. From there, defense
of the Christian world required the organization of a naval force; so the Order built a powerful fleet and sailed the eastern
Mediterranean, fighting many famous battles for the sake of Christendom, including Crusades in Syria and Egypt.
In the early 14th century, the institutions of the Order
and the knights who came to Rhodes from every corner of Europe were grouped according to the languages they spoke. The initial
seven such groups, or Langues (Tongues) -- Provence, Auvergne, France, Italy, Aragon (Navarre), England (with
Scotland and Ireland), and Germany -- became eight in 1492, when Castille and Portugal were separated from the Langue
of Aragon. Each Langue included Priories or Grand Priories, Bailiwicks, and Commanderies.
The Order was governed by its Grand Master (the Prince of Rhodes)
and Council. From its beginning, independence from other nations granted by pontifical charter and the universally recognised
right to maintain and deploy armed forces constituted grounds for the international sovereignty of the Order, which minted
its own coins and maintained diplomatic relations with other States. The senior positions of the Order were given to representatives
of different Langues.
months of siege and fierce combat against the fleet and army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, the Knights were forced
to surrender in 1523 and left Rhodes with military honours. The Order remained without a territory of its own until 1530,
when Grand Master Fra' Philippe de Villiers de l'Isle Adam took possession of the island of Malta, granted to the Order by
Emperor Charles V with the approval of Pope Clement VII.
The Reformation which split Western Europe into Protestant and Roman Catholic states affected the Knights
as well. In several countries, including England and Scotland, the Order was disestablished. In others, including the Netherlands
and the Germanies, entire bailiwicks or commanderies (administrative divisions of the Order) experienced religious conversions.
The "Johanniter orders" are the continuations of these converted divisions in Germany, the Netherlands,
Sweden, and other countries, including the United States and South Africa. It was established that the Order should remain
neutral in any war between Christian nations.
In 1565 the Knights, led by Grand Master Fra' Jean de la
Vallette (after whom the capital of Malta, Valletta, was named), defended the island for more than three months during the
Great Siege by the Turks. The fleet of the Order, then one of the most powerful in the Mediterranean, contributed to the
ultimate destruction of the Ottoman naval power in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.
Two hundred years later, in 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte occupied the island for its
strategic value during his Egyptian campaign. Because of the Order's Rule prohibiting them to raise weapons against other
Christians, the knights were forced to leave Malta. Although the sovereign rights of the Order in the island of Malta had
been reaffirmed by the Treaty of Amiens (1802), the Order was unable to return to Malta.
After having temporarily resided in Messina, Catania and Ferrara, in 1834 the Order settled definitively
in Rome, where it owns, with extraterritorial status, the Magistral Palace in Via Condotti 68 and the Magistral Villa on the
The original hospitaller
mission became once again the main activity of the Order, growing ever stronger during the last century, most especially
because of the contribution of the activities carried out by the Grand Priories and National Associations in so many countries
around the world. Large-scale hospitaller and charitable activities were carried out during World Wars I and II under Grand
Master Fra' Ludovico Chigi Albani della Rovere (1931-1951). Under the Grand Masters Fra' Angelo de Mojana di Cologna (1962-1988)
and Fra' Andrew Bertie (1988-2008), the projects expanded until they reached the furthermost regions of the planet.
Return to Malta
In 1998 due to an agreement made with the
Maltese Government, the Order has returned to Malta. It once again has property in Malta, but its headquarters are still
in Rome. This agreement grants the Order the exclusive use of Fort St Angelo in the town of Birgu, Malta. This agreement
has a duration of 99 years.
International status of the Order
With its unique history and unusual present
circumstances, the exact status of the Order in international law has been the subject of debate: it claims to be a traditional
example of a sovereign entity other than a state. Its two headquarters in Rome - the Palazzo Malta in Via dei Condotti 68,
where the Grand Master resides and Government Bodies meet, and the Villa Malta on the Aventine, which hosts the Grand Priory
of Rome - Fort Saint Angelo on the island of Malta, the Embassy of the Order to Holy See and the Embassy of the Order to Italy
have all been granted extraterritoriality.
unlike the Holy See, which is sovereign over Vatican City, SMOM has had no sovereign territory (other than Fort St Angelo
in Malta and a few properties in Italy with extraterritoriality) since the loss of the island of Malta in 1798. The United
Nations does not classify it as a "non-member state" but as one of the "entities and intergovernmental organizations
having received a standing invitation to participate as observers." For instance, while the International Telecommunication
Union has granted radio identification prefixes to such quasi-sovereign jurisdictions as the United Nations and the Palestinian
Authority, SMOM has never received one. For awards purposes, amateur radio operators consider SMOM to be a separate "entity",
but stations transmitting from there use an entirely unofficial callsign, starting with the prefix "1A". Likewise,
for internet identification, the SMOM has neither sought nor been granted a top-level domain, while Vatican City uses its
own domain (.va).
There are differing
opinions as to whether a claim to sovereign status has been recognized. Ian Brownlie, Helmut Steinberger, and Wilhelm Wengler
are among the experts who say that the claim has not been recognized. Even taking into account the Order's ambassadorial status
among many nations, a claim to sovereign status is sometimes rejected. The Order maintains diplomatic missions around the
world and many of the states reciprocate by accrediting ambassadors to the Order.
Wengler-a German professor of international
law-addresses this point in his book Völkerrecht, and rejects the notion that recognition of the Order by some
states can make it a subject of international law. Conversely, professor Rebecca Wallace -writing more recently in her book
International Law-explains that a sovereign entity does not have to be a country, and that SMOM is an example of
this. This position appears to be supported by the number of nations extending diplomatic relations to the Order, which
more than doubled from 49 to 100 in the 20-year period to 2008. In 1953, the Holy See proclaimed that the Order
of Malta was only a "functional sovereignty"-due to the fact that it did not have all that pertained to true sovereignty,
such as territory.
SMOM has formal diplomatic
relations with 104 states and has official relations with another six countries and the European Union. Additionally it has
relations with the International Committee of the Red Cross and a number of international organizations, including observer
status at the UN and some of the specialized agencies. Its international nature is useful in enabling it to pursue its humanitarian
activities without being seen as an operative of any particular nation. Its claimed sovereignty is also expressed in the
issuance of passports, licence plates, stamps, and coins. That Rome is the capital of the Italian Republic, the
Holy See is located there as enclave and the extraterritorial Order of Malta headquarters are located there as well, leads
to a high density of diplomatic instances in the city.
The SMOM coins are appreciated more for their subject matter
than for their use as currency; SMOM postage stamps, however, have been gaining acceptance among Universal Postal Union
member nations. The SMOM began issuing euro-denominated postage stamps in 2005, although the scudo remains the official currency
of the SMOM. Also in 2005, the Italian post agreed with the SMOM to deliver internationally most classes of mail other than
registered, insured, and special-delivery mail; additionally 56 countries recognize SMOM stamps for franking purposes, including
those such as Canada and Mongolia that lack diplomatic relations with the Order.
Overview of international bilateral relations
The Order has established diplomatic relations with 104 sovereign states
(including the Holy See, Monaco and Russia) and exchanges ambassadors with the European Union.
The Order has non-diplomatic official relations with 6 more states: France, Germany,
Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Canada.
5 other states maintain no relations with and do not recognize the passports of the Order: Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Iceland,
Currently the Order has no established relations
- Andorra, Denmark, United Kingdom, Ireland,
Norway, Cyprus, Estonia, Turkey, Azerbaijan
Tunisia, Libya, Syria, Israel
- Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain,
Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho
- Mongolia (accepts its stamps), Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
- China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Indonesia,
Malaysia, Brunei, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives
- Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Nauru, Tuvalu, Palau, Fiji, Vanuatu, Tonga, Samoa
- United States, Mexico, Jamaica, Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, Grenada,
Trinidad and Tobago
- any of the states with limited
recognition listed here.
Governance of the Order
The proceedings of the Order are governed by its Constitutional Charter and the
Order's Code. It is divided internationally into six territorial Grand Priories, six Sub-Priories, and 47 national associations.
The supreme head of the Order is the Grand Master, who is
elected for life by the Council Complete of State, holds the precedence of a cardinal of the Church since 1630, and received
the rank of Reichsfürst (Prince of the Holy Roman Empire) in 1607. Fra' Matthew Festing was elected by the Council as
79th Grand Master on 11 March 2008, succeeding Fra' Andrew Bertie, who was Grand Master until his death on 7 February 2008.
Electors in the Council include the members of the Sovereign Council, other office-holders and representatives of the members
of the Order. The Grand Master is aided by the Sovereign Council (the government of the Order), which is elected by the
Chapter General, the legislative body of the Order. The Chapter General meets every five years; at each meeting, all seats
of the Sovereign Council are up for election. The Sovereign Council includes six members and four High Officers: the Grand
Commander, the Grand Chancellor, the Grand Hospitaller and the Receiver of the Common Treasure. The Grand Commander is the
chief religious officer of the Order and serves as "Interim Lieutenant" during a vacancy in the office of Grand
Master. The Grand Chancellor, whose office includes those of the Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
is the head of the executive branch; he is responsible for the Diplomatic Missions of the Order and relations with the national
Associations. The Grand Hospitaller's responsibilities include the offices of Minister for Humanitarian Action and Minister
for International Cooperation; he coordinates the Order's humanitarian and charitable activities. Finally, the Receiver
of the Common Treasure is the Minister of Finance and Budget; he directs the administration of the finances and property
of the Order.
Patrons of the Order of Malta since
The patron, who is always a cardinal, has the
task of promoting the spiritual interests of the Order and its members, and its relations with the Holy See.
- Paolo Cardinal Giobbe (8 August 1961 - 3 July 1969)
- Giacomo Cardinal Violardo (3 July 1969 - 17 March 1978)
- Paul-Pierre Cardinal Philippe, O.P. (10 November 1978 - 9 April 1984)
- Sebastiano Cardinal Baggio (26 May 1984 - 21 March 1993)
- Pio Cardinal Laghi (8 May 1993 - 11 January 2009)
- Paolo Cardinal Sardi (6 June 2009 - present)
Membership in the order is divided into several
classes: knights of justice, or profess knights, who take religious vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience
and form what amounts to a religious order (until the 1990s membership in this class was restricted to members of families
with noble titles); knights of obedience (similarly restricted, these knights make a promise, rather than a vow,
of obedience); knights of honour and devotion, knights of grace and devotion, and knights of magistral
grace, all classes made up of members who take no vows and who had to show a decreasingly extensive history of nobility
(knights of magistral grace need not prove any noble lineage and are the commonest class of knights in the United States).
Within each class of knights are ranks ranging from bailiff grand cross (the highest) through knight grand cross, knight
commander, knight officers, and knight - thus one could be a "knight commander of grace and devotion," or a "bailiff
grand cross of justice." A final rank of donat is offered to some who join the order in the class of "justice"
but who are not knights.
Prior to the
1990s, all officers of the Order had to be of noble birth (i.e., armigerous for at least a hundred years), as they
were all knights of justice or of obedience. However, Knights of Magistral Grace (i.e., those without noble proofs)
now may make the Promise of Obedience and, at the discretion of the Grand Master and Sovereign Council, may enter the novitiate
to become professed Knights of Justice.
there are over 13,000 knights and dames, a small minority of whom are professed religious. Membership of the Order is by
invitation only and solicitations are not entertained.
The Order's finances are audited by a Board of Auditors, which includes a President and four Councillors,
all elected by the Chapter General. The Order's judicial powers are exercised by a group of Magistral Courts, whose judges
are appointed by the Grand Master and Sovereign Council.
Military Corps of the Order
The Order states that it was the hospitaller role that enabled the Order to survive the end of the crusading
era; nonetheless, it retains its military title and traditions. On March 26, 1876 the Association of the Italian Knights
of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (ACISMOM) formed a Military Corps to provide medical support to the Italian
Army, that on April 9, 1909 did officially become a special auxiliary volunteer corps of the Italian Army under the name
Corpo Militare dell'Esercito dell'ACISMOM (Army Military Corps of the ACISMOM), wearing Italian uniforms. Since
then the Military Corps have operated with the Italian Army both in wartime and peacetime in medical or paramedical military
functions, and in ceremonial functions for the Order, such as standing guard around the coffins of high officers of the
Order before and during funeral rites. Fausto Solaro del Borgo, President of the Italian Association of the Sovereign Military
Order of Malta, stated in a speech given in London in November 2007:
I believe that it is a unique case in the world that a unit of the army of one country
is supervised by a body of another sovereign country. Just think that whenever our staff (medical officers mainly) is engaged
in a military mission abroad, there is the flag of the Order flying below the Italian flag.
The Military Corps has become known in mainland Europe for
its operation of hospital trains, a service which was carried out intensively during both World Wars. The Military Corps
still operate a modern 28 cars hospital train with 192 hospital beds, serviced by a medical staff of 38 medics and paramedics
provided by the Order and a technical staff provided by the Italian Army Railway Engineers Regiment.
Order of Malta aircraft
post-World War II peace treaty forbade Italy to own or operate bomber aircraft, and a limited number of transport ones, in
1947 the Italian Air Force opted to transfer some of its SM.82 aircraft to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, pending
the definition of their exact status (the SM.82 were properly long range transport aircraft that could be adapted for bombing
missions). These aircraft were operated by Italian Air Force personnel "on loan" to the Order, carried the Order's
roundels on the fuselage and Italian ones on the wings, and were used mainly for standard Italian Air Force training and
transport missions but also for some humanitarian tasks proper of the Order of Malta (like the transport of sick pilgrims
to the Lourdes sanctuary). In the early '50, when the strictures of the peace treaty had been much relaxed by the Allies
authorities, the aircraft returned under full control of the Italian Air Force. One of the aircraft transferred to the Order
of Malta, still with the Order's fuselage roundels, is preserved in the Italian Air Force Historical Museum.
Medals, awards and Orders of the Sovereign
Military Order of Malta
First Class (Knights
of Justice and Conventual Chaplains)
- Venerable Bailiff Knights Grand Cross of Justice Professed of Solemn Vows
- Knights Grand Cross of Justice Professed of Solemn Vows
- Commanders of Justice Professed of Solemn Vows
- Knights of Justice Professed of Solemn Vows
- Knights Grand Cross of Justice Professed of Simple Vows
- Knights admitted to the Novitiate
- Conventual Chaplains Grand Cross Professed of Solemn Religious Vows
- Conventual Chaplains Professed of Solemn Religious Vows
- Conventual Chaplains Professed of Simple Religious Vows
Class (Knights and Dames in Obedience Cavalieri)
- Bailiff Knights Grand Cross in Obedience
- Knights and Dames Grand Cross in Obedience
- Knights and Dames in Obedience
- Donatus of Justice
Third Class - First Category
(Knights and Dames of Honour and Devotion)
- Bailiff Knights Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion with Profession Cross ad honorem
- Bailiff Knights Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion
- Knights and Dames Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion
- Knights of Honours and Devotion owner of Commandery of Family Patronage
- Knights and Dames of Honour and Devotion
- Bailiff Knights Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion for Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
Third Class - Second Category (Conventual Chaplains ad honorem)
- Conventual Chaplians Grand Cross Cappellano ad honorem
- Conventual Chaplains ad honorem
Class - Third Category (Knights and Dames of Grace and Devotion)
- Knights Grand Cross of Grace and Devotion with Sash
- Knights and Dames Grand Cross of Grace and Devotion
- Knights and Dames of Grace and Devotion
Class - Fourth Category (Magistral Chaplains)
- Magistral Chaplains
Third Class - Fifth Category
(Knights and Dames of Magistral Grace)
- Knights Grand Cross of Magistral Grace with Sash
- Knights and Dames Grand Cross of Magistral Grace
- Knights and Dames of Magistral Grace
- Sixth Category (Donatus of Devotion)
- Donatus of Devotion I class
- Donatus of Devotion II class
- Donatus of Devotion III class
Order pro Merito
Collar of the Order pro Merito Melitensi
- Pro Merito Melitensi Collar - Military Class
- Pro Merito Melitensi Collar - Civilian Class
grade, usually bestowed only upon Heads of State.
Cross of the Order pro Merito Melitensi
- Grand Cross with Swords pro Merito Melitensi - special class
- Grand Cross with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
- Grand Officer Cross with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
- Commander Cross with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
- Officer Cross with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
- Cross with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
Class - Gentlemen
- Grand Cross pro Merito Melitensi - special class
- Grand Cross pro Merito Melitensi
- Grand Officer Cross pro Merito Melitensi
- Commander Cross pro Merito Melitensi
- Officer Cross pro Merito Melitensi
- Cross pro Merito Melitensi
Civilian Class -
- Grand Cross pro Merito Melitensi - special
- Grand Cross pro Merito Melitensi
- Cross pro Merito Melitensi with Badge
- Cross pro Merito Melitensi with Crown
pro Merito Melitensi with Shield
- Cross pro Merito Melitensi
- Grand Cross pro Piis Meritis Melitensi
- Cross pro Piis Meritis Melitensi
Medal of the
Order pro Merito Melitensi
Old style (1920-1960)
- Gold Medal pro Merito Melitensi
- Silver Medal pro Merito Melitensi
- Bronze Medal pro Merito Melitensi
- Gold Medal with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
- Silver Medal with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
- Bronze Medal with Swords pro Merito Melitensi
- Gold Medal pro Merito Melitensi
- Silver Medal pro Merito Melitensi
- Bronze Medal pro Merito Melitensi
- Silver Medal for the Calabria and Sicily earthquake (april 24th 1912)
- Bronze Medal for the Calabria and Sicily earthquake (april 24th 1912)
- Silver Medal for the Turkey War (april 24th 1912)
- Silver Medal for the Turkey War (april 24th 1912)
- Merit Medal for assistance to the 1940-1945 War Veterans
- Silver Medal for assistance to the Hungarian Refugees
- Bronze Medal for assistance to the Hungarian Refugees
- Medal for relief activities in Vietnam
- Malteser International Medal of Merit in Gold
- Malteser International Medal of Merit in Silver
- Malteser International Medal of Merit in Bronze
- Malteser International Medal of Committment "St.Martin 2007"
- Malteser International Service Medal
Corps of the Order of Malta
- ECOM Medal for Kosovo 1999
- ECOM for Rwanda 2002
Medal and awards of the
Knights of Malta National Associations
- Merit Medal in Gold
- Merit Medal in Silver
- Merit Medal in Bronze
- Medal for the relief of the Kosovo refugees (1999)
- Euro 2008 Medal in Gold
- Euro 2008 Medal in Silver
Malteser in Deutschland
- Malteser Hilfsdienst e.V. (Germany)
- Memorial Medal for the Malteser Hilfsdienst 50th Anniversary Jubilee
- Thanks and Gratitude Medal in Gold
- Thanks and Gratitude Medal in Silver
- Thanks and Gratitude Medal in Bronze
of Malta Irish Association and Ambulance Corps (Eire)
- Merit Medal
- Long Service Medal (10 years)
- Long Service Medal (20 years)
- War Service Medal (1916) of the St.John Ambulance Brigade
Associazione dei Cavalieri Italiani del Sovrano Ordine di Malta e Corpo Militare dell'Esercito dell'ACISMOM (Italy)
- Medal for the Southern Italy earthquake (1980)
- Medal for the Northern Italy Emergency (2000)
- Medal for the Abruzzo earthquake (1999)
- Memorial Medal of the Redemption Jubilee Pilgrimage (1933)
- Merit Medal for assistance to the Holy Year pilgrims (1975)
- Medal for the assistance to the Redemption Jubilee pilgrims (1983)
- Medal for the assistance to the Redemption Jubilee pilgrims (2000)
- Merit medals for the Lourdes Pilgrimages
- Ribbon for the Malta Order Lourdes Pilgrimages 50th Anniversary
- Pilgrimages Memorial Medal
- Lourdes Pilgrimages Memorial Medal
- Loreto Pilgrimages Memorial Medal
- Memorial Medal for the second millennium from the birth of Saint Paul Apostle of the People (november 21st 2009)
- Honour Merit Badge of the Military Corps of the order of Malta awarded in the Gold, Silver and Bronze classes.
- Memorial Medal of the 1915-1918 War
- Memorial Medal of the 1940-1945 War awarded in the Silver Class for officers and Bronze Class for other ranks.
- Memorial Medal for the operations in the former Yugoslavia (june 7th 1996)
- Long Service Cross for managers and volunteer nurses (october 24th 1941)
- Long Service Cross for NCOs and other ranks (october 24th 1941)
Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller
Grand Masters of the Sovereign
Military Order of Malta