Nobility of the World
Volume VIII - Mongolia
of The Nobility of Mongolia
The Mongolian nobility (Mongolian: язгууртан
сурвалжтан; yazgurtan survaljtan) arose between
the 10th and 12th centuries, became prominent in the 13th century, and essentially governed Mongolia until the early 20th
century. The Mongolian word for nobility, Yazgurtan, derives from the Mongol word yazgur, meaning "root".
Mongol Empire (1206–1368) and Yuan dynasty
(Khagan, ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ), the
supreme ruler of the Mongol Empire.
(ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠨ), meaning "King of a State", a
ruler of a vassal/tributary state under the Mongol Empire.
(ᠵᠢᠨᠤᠩ), meaning "Crown Prince", the
heir apparent of the Great Khaan. During the Yuan dynasty, the Jinong resided in Karakorum and administered ceremonial
- Khan Khuu (ᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠦ), meaning "Prince".
- Mirza , a Persian term meaning "Prince".
- Tumetu-iin Noyan (), meaning "Commander
of a Tümen". A tümen was a military unit of 10,000 troops. There were initially only nine
tümens in the Mongol Empire in 1206, but by 1368 there were 40 Mongol tümens and four Oirat tümens.
- Mingghan-u Noyan , meaning "Commander of a Mingghan".
A mingghan was a military unit of 1,000 troops.
Darga , meaning "Commander of a Zuut". A zuut was a military unit of 100 troops.
- Arban-u Darga , meaning "Commander of an Aravt".
An aravt was a military unit of 10 troops.
a title for a Kheshig commander.
- Bey/Beg ,
a Turkish term meaning "Chieftain".
- Khatun (ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ;
可敦), meaning "Empress" or "Queen".
or Behi (别姬), referred to a noble lady, a Turkish term used to refer to the wife or
daughter of a bey.
- Gonji (ᠭᠦᠩᠵᠦ; 公主), referred to a princess or noble lady.
Northern Yuan dynasty (1368–1635)
Khaan (Khagan), the
supreme ruler of the Northern Yuan Empire.
a title for a Mongol feudal lord. By the mid-16th century, there were a number of khans in Mongolia as local feudal
lords started calling themselves khan. Note that this khan is different from khaan;
khaan was reserved for the supreme ruler only.
the crown prince or heir apparent of the Khaan. He resided in the Inner Mongolia region. From the 15th century,
the title became a hereditary one and was no longer reserved exclusively for the heir apparent of the Khaan.
Khong Tayiji (ᠬᠤᠨ
ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ;, originated from the Chinese term huangtaizi (皇太子;
"Imperial Crown Prince"). It was used to refer to a descendant of Genghis Khan who had his own fief.
a title for a descendant of Genghis Khan.
a title for a descendant of Qasar or any of Genghis Khan's brothers who had his own fief.
Grand Preceptor), a title for a noble of non-Borjigit descent who had his own fief. Such nobles included the descendants of
the Khaan's consort.
- Khatun , referred
to a queen consort or noble lady of equivalent status.
referred to a princess or noble lady of equivalent status.
(Beiji), referred to a princess consort or noble lady of equivalent status.
Qing dynasty (1691–1911)
and Bogd Khaganate (1911–1924)
- Khan (Хаан), referred to the lord of a
hoshun. Note that this title is of a lower status than the Khaan or Khagan
used in earlier times. Among the Khalkha Mongols, there were four khans: Tushietu Khan, Zasagtu Khan, Secen Khan
and Sain Noyan Khan. In the Kobdo region, there were two khans: Tögs Hülüg Dalai Khan and Ünen
Zorigtu Khan. Despite the association of the four aimags with these titles, the khan's power was restricted to only
within his hoshun. The khan would communicate with the Qing Emperor just as any other hoshun lord.
- Ashan-i hafan (男爵; equivalent of baron), a special
title awarded to foreigners (e.g. Alexander Zanzer I) during the reign of Bogd Khan. The baron drew an annual income of 3,500
taels of silver and 60 rolls of silk.
six titles were the same as those used by members of the Manchu nobility. (See here for details.) These titles were usually
hereditary, and were decorated with styles to form a longer title (e.g. Khorchin Jasagh Darhan Chin-Wang 科爾沁扎薩克達爾罕親王)
to indicate which hoshun the noble was from.
- Chin Wang (ᠴᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ
親王), referred to the lord of a hoshun. A chin wang drew an annual income of 2,600 taels of
silver and 40 rolls of silk, and owned 60 slaves.
Wang (ᠭᠢᠶᠦᠢᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ
郡王), referred to the lord of a hoshun. A giyün wang drew an annual income of 1,200–2,000
taels of silver and 15–25 rolls of silk, and owned 50 slaves.
(ᠪᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡ 貝勒), referred to the
lord of a hoshun. A beile drew an annual income of 600 taels of silver and 13 rolls of silk, and owned 40
- Beis (ᠪᠡᠶᠢᠰᠡ
貝子), referred to the lord of a hoshun. A beis drew an annual income of 500 taels of silver
and 10 rolls of silk.
- Tushiye Gong (ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠶᠡ
鎮國公), referred to the lord of a hoshun. A tushiye gong drew an annual income of 300
taels of silver and nine rolls of silk.
- Tusalagchi Gong
輔國公), referred to the lord of a hoshun. A tusalagchi gong drew an annual income of
200 taels of silver and seven rolls of silk.
- Hohi Taiji
(ᠲᠠᠢᠵᠢ 台吉) referred to a Mongol noble
who did not hold any of the above six titles. It was subdivided into four ranks:
- Terigun Zereg-un Taiji (一等台吉), first-rank hohi taiji who was eligible
for a hereditary lordship over a hoshun. He drew an annual income of 100 taels of silver and four rolls of silk.
- Ded Zereg-un Taiji (二等台吉), second-rank hohi taiji
who was also eligible for a hereditary lordship over a hoshun. He drew an annual income of 90 taels of silver and
three rolls of silk.
- Gutagaar Zereg-un Taiji (三等台吉),
third-rank hohi taiji.
- Dötugeer Zereg-un Taiji
(四等台吉), fourth-rank hohi taiji who drew an annual income of 40 taels of silver and owned
Apart from the above ranks, the nobles were also divided into two types:
- Töröl Taiji
(literally "related nobles"), members of the 'Altan Urug' and descendants of Genghis Khan.
- Khariyatu Taiji (literally "subject nobles"), descendants
of Qasar, Belgutei and Genghis Khan's brothers, or of Tooril Khan and Tumetu-iin Noyans.
Other titles used to refer to Mongolian nobles include:
- A-ge (ᠠᠭᠡ
阿哥), a son of a noble family.
a son-in-law of a noble family.
- Soumon Albatu,
referred to a slave in general
- Hamjilga, referred
to a slave of a noble family
- Shabi, referred
to a servant of a hotogtu (呼圖克圖; a title awarded by the Dalai Lama or Panchen Lama)
Please See: Princely House of Borjikin - Borjigin
Highness Prince Steven Jorchen Harold Borjigin is the 36th generation of the Great Khan Dynasty. His Highness is a direct
descendant to the Great Genghis Khan, the 13th-century warrior in central Asia who founded the Mongol Empire, one of the
largest Empires in history.